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HomeQuestions from Workstreams

A: Technical- Energy

What we know What we could know
Power, heat and gas flows in city and known patterns of change
  • MSOA level electricity and gas consumption
  • A bottom up address level model of heat demand
  • Bottom up address level model of electricity
  • Temporal model of electricity demand based on load profiles
  • Information on upcoming developments in Bristol with large projected load
Current and future ‘local power generation’ levels and intermittency caused
  • Good estimate of current energy generation capacity within Bristol
  • More information about intermittency of renewable generation
Electricity distribution system operational issues and expectations in ‘smarter’ system
  • Map of demand per substation per LSOA
  • Available capacity in distribution network for distributed generation
  • More about the effects of distributed generation on the distribution network
  • Outcome of SoLa Bristol project
Opportunities for demand side response and reduction in the city (power and heat)
  • Technical maximum demand shift at different times of day and year
Anticipated uses of smart energy data in future energy system management - what gets smart?
  • There are several potential smart devices that could be adopted
  • Expected levels of uptake of smart devices within the home
Inventory of large discretionary loads in the city
Storage technology development trends and potential opportunities
  • The different existing storage technologies
  • The options that could be used within a city like Bristol do not appear to be economically viable at present
  • More about EVs being used as a storage medium
  • Future feasibility of storage

Potential collaborator contributions

WPD could:

  • provide information about the issues arising from distributed generation
  • provide data from distributed generation map

BCC could:

  • provide data from their wind turbines

DNGVL could:

  • help understand virtual power plants

B: Technical - Data and IT

What we know What we could know
IT, data handling, storage and analytics requirement for city-scale activity
Data comms and opportunities for data capture within anticipated flows
Smart meter functionality and consumer access device opportunities
  • Feedback is essential to behaviour change.
  • Feedback at different granularities a1/2 hour to 10 second) and frequencies via smart meter is possible Disaggregation of end use is powerful Between 3 end uses and all end uses can be disaggregated depending on data granularity.
  • The C HAN is accessible via the DCC - can send signals to smart enabled appliances in the home e.g on TOU.
  • C HAN enables optimisation of local supply to local demand within the home.
  • HAN enables communications between all devices and local generation (pv on the roof) using zigbee protocol
  • What frequency is data available to 3rd parties (e.g DNOs).
  • What tools are available for disaggregation and who will offer the disaggregation.
  • Where will it be hosted (in smart meter or in cloud) When smart enabled appliances will begin to become available / if alternatives using plug devices will become available.
  • Functionality of home energy management systems.
  • How aggregation can work at area levels - e.g how would an aggregator manipulate demand via smart meters to to meet grid needs.
  • Everyone in a area would have to sign up to the aggregator.
Using smart meter and energy data to improve energy management – tools and apps
Integrating smart energy data and sensors and controls (‘internet of things’) – what’s in the pipeline and what benefits can it bring (energy and in other spheres – e.g. health)?
  • Information about energy consumption can tell us about behaviour patterns. In theory this can allow detection of unusual behaviour which could be used for safeguarding or telehealth.
  • Control of smart enabled devices remotely either via automation or manually offers potential for innovation in home security, safeguarding and lifestyle.
  • Vulnerable households are least likely to take advantage of smart home type technologies.
  • Need to assemble a list of smart meter enabled services and opportunities.
  • What level of disaggregation is needed to give robust indications of out of trend behaviours.
  • What other sensors are available - e.g. co2, ultra Wide band, humidity, light levels.
  • What are the new kinds of information that can be generated by synergistically bringing different kinds of sensor data together.
Engagement with DNO and GDO to establish real-time data feeds at various network nodes (cf just smart meters)
Use of local data to minimise search costs to target assistance on those who need it most.

Potential collaborator contributions

C: Commercial

What we know What we could know
Value flows in energy system and in smart meter roll-out – scaled to ‘Bristol scale’
Understanding markets where value is traded (balancing, capacity etc)
  • The capacity market was recently introduced to try and ensure security of supply for peak times in the future.
  • The capacity market has been criticized for not encouraging DSR enough and for locking in inefficient power plants.
  • The electricity market is constantly being balanced to maintain supply and demand at correct levels and payments being made to address imbalances - this is done at the HH level..
  • Network costs are re-couped through a variety of different charges, including TNUoS based on consumption during triads - the three periods of peak use in a year.
  • Whether balancing could be achieved on a local scale through local balancing units.
  • The value of smart energy management in triad avoidance.
Understanding value created by smarter energy response and management of system at city scale (and how that will change over time)
  • Why domestic demand side measures are so valuable and how smart meters could facilitate this.
  • The value of DSR to different actors in the energy supply chain and the different functions it can perform.
  • That a smarter grid will facilitate more incorporation of distributed energy resources (currently contribution is very small).
  • Steps that need to be taken at customer level in order for the potential of domestic DSR to be unlocked - time of use tariffs, smarter settlement.
  • Steps that need to be taken at the grid level - microgrids, VPP.
  • That the value of the smart grid and smarter energy management is likely to increase over time as there is greater electrification of heating and transport and more automated devices
  • For matching of local supply and demand a lot of changes are still necessary
  • In Bristol there are currently serious constraints on the distribution network.
  • What the impact of different market actors carrying out DSR at different levels in the supply chain simultaneously might be.
  • Who will have control over the DSR potential and where the value will accrue.
  • How a smart grid will account for the location of distributed generation/storage.
  • When HH settlement is likely to be enforced for domestic customers.
  • If a microgrid could be operated at a Bristol scale
  • Projections for the increase in use of EVs/Heat pumps/CHP in Bristol.
  • If Bristol's F-route is going to be scrapped to make way for a new 400KV route to allow Hinckley C to come online.
Understanding potential financial value of using smart energy data in other services (e.g. health improvement – thermal safeguarding etc)
  • SHIMMER project - combining energy advice with money saving/benefits advice through a smart meter.
  • Project Hydra - using smart meters to provide tele-health care.
  • HyperCat City - exploring value of using the internet of things to share information across the city.
  • If these small scale projects (tens to hundreds of cases usually involved) could be scaled up to the level of a city.
Energy supplier smart meter roll-out plans and potential for securing integrated city-wide approach
Potential business models for city-wide approach
  • Project SoLa BRISTOL -
Innovation and research activities and funding sources for smart energy data/city development
  • Are there SW/GB examples of SME demonstration projects re. analytics and pattern recognition, device disaggregation, and DSR? 
Investment requirements and potential sources

Potential collaborator contributions

D: Regulatory/policy

What we know What we could know
Smart meter roll-out plans and timetable (incl. opportunities for involvement, data issues, support for vulnerable etc)
  • Expecting to enter the the roll-out phase by April 2016 - one of the main reasons for delay is the finalising of the Smart Meter Technical Specification 2 (SMETS2) which all new smart meters will need to be designed in accordance with.
  • The Energy Companies are responsible for the roll-out and must meet the legislation set out in the Smart Metering Code of Practice (SMICoP). This concerns customer care pre, during and post installation.
  • Smart meter data may enable better identification of vulnerable customers with energy debts -one argument for energy companies accessing more data.
  • Must keep up to date with the development of SMETS 2 - one of the delays relates to finalising the system to 'remotely pair' smart meters with Consumer Access devices (CADs) which will affect the option to gain access to data via CADs.
Licensing of different roles in energy system (supply, distribution, meter operation, access to DCC etc)
  • Energy suppliers are licensed by Ofgem to supply and bill customers. Energy suppliers must sign the Smart Energy Code and become panel members. In relation to data provision, a general requirement will be placed on suppliers in licence conditions to ensure consumers are provided with data over the meter interface or internet, free of charge.
  • DNOs have a license obligation to maintain "an efficient and economic network".
  • DECC granted the DCC license to Capita Plc.
  • To gain access to data businesses must become Data Communications Comapny (DCC) 'users' or potentially through designing Consumer Access Devices (CADs) which will be paired remotely to the DCC with householder permission.
  • Final rules of obtaining data via CADS (see previous
Opportunities to mandate ‘smartness’ in new developments and refurbishment
  • This could be challenging at present due to the uncertainty of whether customers with an early meter installed becoming tied to the supplier who installed the meter, or switching and having a new non-smart meter installed thus creating a 'dummy smart meter'.
  • What other partners think the possibilities in this area could be?
‘Space to experiment’ opportunities to operate outside full regulatory regime (Ofgem, DECC etc) – and what could be done
  • Ofgem recently launched a public consultation on 'non-traditional business models' (NTBMs). They aim to start a public conversation on benefits and risks to consumers of non-traditional business models and how they interact with the regulatory system. Ofgem are keen to ensure regulation does not step in the way of delivering desirable consumer outcomes, protects the interests of consumers and allow them to understand the benefits, costs and risks in changing regulation. NTBMs may face challenges at present due to their size or the structure of the energy market but may offer unique opportunities in smart metering.
  • What are NTBM energy companies currently thinking about smart metering?
Privacy (for both individuals and commercial interests) vs public good. Can data be anonymised while still retaining sufficient detail?
  • Data provided by smart meters will be the property of the customer. The DCC have permission to collect the data but not maintain a database. Energy companies must become DCC users to gain access to data. CADS will need to be remotely paired to smart meters via the DCC. Through the SMETS2 specifications it is likely that customers will need to use a four digit pin verify their security during the process of pairing devices. Data will be provided to energy companies on a monthly basis. There will be an opt-out scheme for consumers if they do not wish to grant daily access to energy companies and if energy suppliers wish to gain half-hourly data specific consent will be needed from consumers.
  • DNOs will be able to gain anonymous half-hourly data for regulated purposes, without consent.
  • Consumers will be able to purchase Consumer Access Devices (CADS), in addition to the free IHD they are offered, all of which will be able to remotely pair to DCCs with consumer permission.
  • There is a trade-off between the provision of regular data for the smart grids benefit and the protection of consumers, it is likely that a type of 'cryptographic processor' will be used which encrypts data at the household before sending to the DCC and de-crypts at the DCC.
  • What the energy companies role will be in granting third parties access to the CAD/ Home Area Network (HAN) data - concerns that it could lead to increased competition as a result of their knowledge - permission to be third parties may go through the DCC instead.

E: Social/cultural

What we know What we could know
Public perception and engagement issues
  • The public vision and awareness of smart cities and smart technologies are limited. 
  • The major concerns about SM roll out are cost/ the impact on bills, who benefits from smart metering, health issues and data protection and privacy.
  • Smart PAYG appeals to nearly 50% of households in the South West, 59% for 18-34 yr olds.  There are significant benefits for existing prepayment meter customers in switching to smart prepay.
  • Public misconceptions about smart meters are common and can be overcome by communicating the big picture, emphasising benefits, allaying consumer concerns, and focusing on customer autonomy and control of energy use.
  • SMEs are ‘getting lost’ between the domestic sector and large organisations on smart technologies
  • What are Bristol householders' opinions about smart metering? (especially for those at risk of fuel poverty).
  • How have the private rented sectors (domestic/SME) been tackled on smart metering – examples in GB and other countries? (Landlord and tenant both have limited motivations to make energy efficiency improvements. What are tenants’ experiences of switching and use of smart meter data?) 
Individual, community and business engagement and behaviour change opportunities
  • Demand reduction is 100% based on user engagement. Key frames for promoting domestic smart technologies: Usefulness and ease of use, energy consumer to energy citizen continuum.
  • Research varies on potential savings possible with smart meters:  currently estimated at around 3% electricity, gas less (but based on assumption that electricity decrease is from behaviour change and gas reduction from energy efficiency measures?).
  • IHD and other energy feedback mechanisms well researched. Feedback works best through multiple channels.User motivation and ability to use IHD and data from it are key.
  • SM pre-install and installation process are crucial for engagement.  Special attn and support required for vulnerable groups. Variety of support services explored e.g. community contact, tablets, phone advice, home visits using sensor data.
  • Smart meters don’t make smart energy practices.  Need diverse approaches and nuanced understanding of energy use.
  • Demand Side Response – ToU:  static and direct load control have potential, but is it too early for consumers??
  • Community organisations:  schools are useful hubs, RSLs can offer tenants support.
  • Businesses: some appliances/practices can shift to off peak times. ToU tariffs are of interest but influences on energy use are numerous.
  • What is the potential for use of RSL sensor data (where it exists) to assist tenants, and by what means?
  • What is key learning coming from ICT/SM research projects that is most useful to Bristol?
  • How to engage with blocks of flats? Technical challenge but big engagement opportunities sometimes with fuel poor/vulnerable groups.
  • How to engage with private rented sector?
  • How could 'smart' be integrated into council renovation programme for its social housing? (and funding sources/partnerships for this)
Support needs of vulnerable households and approaches to local provision
  • SMICoP covers min. standards for support to vulnerable households.
  • Smart Energy GB/NEA/CA have all researched ways to best communicate with vulnerable groups.
  • Some, such as Jenny Saunders think the 'vulnerable' definition could be expanded to include those who speak little English.
  • How could more detailed information on Bristol households, ethnic groups/languages, socio-demographics and building infrastructure, be used to tailor messages and advice?
Communication and dissemination routes – audiences and narratives
  • Tailor narratives to groups - examples of messages from other countries sourced.
  • Segment population using the same method used for Fuel Poverty Annual Statistics - using property details and household composition.
Interest of health and social care sectors and understanding of 'cold homes' link to health
  • It will be possible for CADs to communicate with smart meters and connect to sensors within the home.
  • Research is being undertaken by Bristol Uni and Council (amongst Toshiba and others) on the SPHERE project - piloted a sensing kit in 100 Bristol homes.
  • Are people interested in being monitored for this purpose? User satisfaction studies?
  • Are the NHS interested? Cost/benefit studies?

Potential collaborator contributions

KWMC if other insights are available from 3 E Houses or other more recent work.

BCC and RSL around availability/use of temperature/humidity sensor data

This page was last modified on 26 August 2015, at 10:51.
 
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